Traffic shall not be stopped for more than five minutes at a time in any direction.
A. QUALIFICATIONS FOR FLAGGERS
Because flaggers are responsible for public safety and make the greatest number of public contacts of all roadway workers, they should have the following minimum qualifications:
Ability to receive and communicate specific instructions clearly, firmly, and courteously;
Ability to move and maneuver quickly in order to avoid danger from errant vehicles;
Ability to control signaling devices (such as paddles and flags) in order to provide clear and positive guidance to drivers approaching a TTC zone in frequently changing situations;
Ability to understand and apply safe traffic control practices, sometimes in stressful or emergency situations;
Ability to recognize dangerous traffic situations and warn workers in sufficient time to avoid injury.
B. HIGH VISIBILITY SAFETY APPAREL
Flaggers, at all times, shall wear safety apparel meeting the requirements of ISEA "American National Standard for High-Visibility Apparel" and labeled as meeting the ANSI 107-1999 standard performance for Class 2 risk exposure. The apparel background (outer) material color shall be either fluorescent orange-red or fluorescent yellow-green as defined in the standard. The retro-reflective material shall be orange, yellow, white, silver, yellow-green, or a fluorescent version of these colors, and shall be visible at a minimum distance of 1,000 ft.
C. HAND SIGNALING EQUIPMENT
Except in emergency situations, flaggers shall use standard STOP/SLOW paddles to direct traffic through a work zone. The faces of the standard STOP/SLOW paddle are shown in Figure 4. The paddles shall be retro-reflectorized for nighttime use.
In emergency situations, red flags may be used in lieu of the standard STOP/SLOW paddle. Such flags will be a minimum of 24 inches square and shall be fastened to a staff about three feet long. The free edge should be weighted so the flag will hang vertically, even in heavy winds. When used at night, flags shall be retro-reflective red.
Flaggers should be equipped with whistles, horns, or other devices to warn workers of errant vehicles entering the work zone.
D. HAND SIGNALING PROCEDURES
Flaggers are provided to stop traffic intermittently as required by the work process or to maintain continuous traffic past a work site at reduced speeds to help protect the work crew. This is to be accomplished following the procedures shown in Figures 5 and 6. Traffic shall not be stopped for more than 5 minutes at a time in any direction.
E. FLAGGER STATIONS
The flaggers must, at all times, be clearly visible to approaching traffic for a distance in advance of the work zone sufficient to permit proper response by the motorist to the flagging instructions.
Flaggers should stand on the shoulder adjacent to the traffic being controlled. A single flagger stationed in the center of the work zone should stand on the shoulder opposite the workspace. A flagger should stand in an open travel lane only after traffic in that lane has been stopped.
It is critical that flaggers are clearly visible to approaching traffic. For this reason the flagger should stand alone. No other traffic control devices should be placed around the flagger station nor should other workers congregate around the flagger station.
It is recognized that certain types of construction and/or maintenance activity, especially those in or near intersections, require extensive traffic control which can be effectively accomplished only by a uniformed police officer. Public and private agencies shall acquire the services of a uniformed police officer when the situation so dictates for the safety of the public and the workers. Ample advance notice should be provided to the Police Department to schedule the services of uniformed police officer.
F. POLICE OFFICERS
Only uniformed police officers shall direct traffic through signalized intersections. The traffic signal may be put into flashing operation or may remain in normal operation at the discretion of the officer.
Officers shall be properly attired and shall direct traffic with hand motions. Flashlights with red cones should be used at night. Officers may also use a whistle to signal when they are changing the direction of the right of way.
(See Figures 4 - Standard Stop/Slow Paddle, Figure 5 - Hand Signaling Procedures, and Figure 6 - Flagging Procedures, emergencies only.)